Ecotourism Sites in Myanmar
Union of Myanmar
Location – South East Asia
Total land area - 261,228 sq miles (677,000 sq km), extending
from latitude 10N to 28N and longitude 92E to 102E from a land
corridor linking the Indian, Indo – Chinese and Sundial sub-bio
geographical regions such as:-
India and Bangladesh in the West
China in the North and East
Laos and Thailand in the East
The Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the South West.
2. Major River System
The auspicious setting of rugged and majestic terrain ecosystem
is sacred water tower of Myanmar lifeline Ayeyarwady. The
rangelands ecosystem also is important for the headwater’s
environment of the major rivers system in the Himalaya. Nine of
the World major rivers The Ganges, Indus, Sutley, Brahmaputra,
Mekong, Thanlwin, Ayeyarwady, Yangtze and Yellow are originated
in the Himalaya and Tibetan plateau.
3. Flora and Fauna
1350 miles (2170 km) with navigable distances 930 miles (1500
Approximately 600 miles with navigable distance
110 miles (180 km) in dry season
380 miles (610 km) during the monsoon
1749 miles (2816 km) with navigable distance
100 miles (160 km)
Myanmar’s richness of a diverse array of species and ecosystems
constitute one of the biological reservoirs in Asia. One of the
unique feature of Myanmar is the Eastern Himalaya, the remote
plateau region lies in the rain shadow of the Madoi Madaing Razi
Alpine rangeland. The year round, snow-capped Mountains are the
unique geophysical landmark in the Hindu – Kush –Himalayan
region of Myanmar. Marine and terrestrial ecosystems containing
mosaic coral reefs, mangrove forests and rain forests offer a
degree of choice for the establishment of ecotourism sites.
In these diversified ecosystems, with approximately 14000
species of plants, 1036 species of residential birds
(representing 12% of world’s total)
, 68 specie of swallow- tail
butterflies (representing another 12% of the world total make it
the fifth richest country in the world), 372 species reptiles,
300 species of mammals, 10 species of amphibians indicate that
unparalleled richness of the biodiversity compared to any
country with a landmass equivalent to Myanmar.
Alpine rangeland of Madoi Madaing Razi provide habitats for
numerous species of wildlife and plant species are of medicinal
value and other species may provide important genetic material
for future economic use. Meadow rangeland of the Himalaya are
also some of the world’s most outstanding rangeland ecosystems.
So that the Eastern Himalayan alpine meadows were so well
represented in the ‘‘Global 200 highlights’’ the special
attention that these areas need for conserving not only for
Myanmar but also for the world’s biodiversity.
4. Geological Profile
Divided into four parts :
5. Forest Cover
1. Rakhine Coastal Strip
2. Fold Mountain Belt
3. Central Belt
4. Shan Plateau
5. Climate – Tropical
Myanmar still enjoy total forested area: 132715 sq miles or
roughly 45% total land with protected area 40137 sq miles and
reserve forest of total 92578 sq miles.
6. National Park Systems
Myanmar has total 40 National Parks system established which
includes Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bird
Sanctuaries, Protected Areas
etc which are managed by the Wild Life department, Ministry of
7. Designated Eco- Tourism Sites
1) National Botanical Gardens
2) Moeywingyi Wetland Bird Sanctuary
3) Popa Mountain Park
4) Shwesettaw Wildlife Sanctuary
5) Inle Lake Bird Sanctuary
6) Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park
7) Natma Taung National Park
8) Hkakaborazi National Park
9) Phongun Razi Wild Life Sanctuary
10) Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary
11) Lumpi Marine National Park
12) Myaing Hay Wun Elephant camp and Hospice
13) Phokya Sakan Elephant Camp
4) Hukoung Valley Tiger Reserves
9a. National Botanical Gardens
Location – Pyin Oo Lwin Township, Mandalay Division
Total Land Area – 344.81 acres
Natural forest area – 42 acres
Year of establishment – 1915
Forest type - 482 species of native tree, 67 species of foreign
75 species of Bamboom, 210 species of flower and 42 species of
Wildlife – 13 species of residential bird, 16 species of
9b. Moeywingyi Wetland Bird
Location – Bago Township, Bago Division
Year of establishment - 1986
Wild life - Rich in wetland eco-system with, 58 species of
residential birds, 66
species of migratory birds and 26 species
9c. Popa Mountain Park
Location – Kyauk Padaung Township, Mandalay Division.
Year of establishment – 1983
Upgraded into National Park in 1989
Total area - 49.63 sq miles
Dry zone ecosystem with rich flora and fauna
Type of forest - Than, Dahat forest, low land Indein forest,
upper mixed deciduous forest, hill evergreen forest, pine forest
hill grass land etc.
A reserve garden of 345 species of Myanmar indigenous herbal
Wild Life - Barking deer, civets, dusky leaf monkeys
175 species of residential birds, 30 species of butterflies.
9d. Shwesettaw Wildlife
Location - Minbu, Saku and Ngapeh Townships, Magwe Division.
Area - 2134 square miles.
Year of establishment – 1940
Forest type – Than–Dahat, Low Indein and dry deciduous forests
Wild life - Bear, Gaur, Sambar, Barking Deer, Eld's deer, Wild
boar and various types of wild cats, wild dogs and birds and
rare Star tortoise.
Bird – 113 species of residential birds
9e. Inlay Lake Wetland bird
Location – Nyaung Shwe Township, Southern Shan State.
Year of establishment - 1985
Total area - 642.32 sq miles
Wetland ecosystem with 37 species of birds, 27 species of
wetland birds, 14 species of migratory birds and 40 species of
fresh water fish, otters, turtles.
9f. Alaungdaw Kathapa National
-> Location - Mingin Township of Sagaing, Division.
Area 620.35 square miles.
Year of establishment - 1941
Opened as a National Park in 1984
Forest type – Moist upper mixed deciduous forest, dry upper and
lower mixed deciduous forest. Indein and pine forest
Wild Life – Elephant, tiger, leopard, guar, benteng, sambar,
barking deer, jungle goat, mountain goat, bear, wild boar,
Bird – 60 species of residential bird including prominent great
horn bills plus 200 species of butterflies
9g. Natma Taung National Park
Location - Kampalat, Mindat and Matupi Townships
Year of establishment - 1994
Total area - 279 sq miles
Type of forest – Hill evergreen forest, moist upper deciduous
forest, Pine forest & hill Savannah, Rhododendron in white,
yellow and red and indigenous orchid including rare black orchid
Wild life - Gaur Serow and gorals
Bird - 284 species of residential birds including 5 species of
endemic birds like White browed Nuthatch species
9h. Hkakaborazi National Park
Location - In the foothills of the Himalayas in northern Kachin
-> Highest snow-capped mountain in Southeast Asia with 19269
feet (5881 meter)
Important watershed area for Myanmar lifeline Ayeyarwady river
Forest type – Evergreen forest, Hill pine forest, moist upper
Wild Life – Rare species of Takin, Musk deer, blue sheep, Black
barking deer plus numerous kind of mammal species, insects,
birds and butterflies
Indigenous tribe – Last remaining Tarong tribe with about 4 feet
9i. Phongun Razi Wild Life
Location – Putao District,
3485 meters above sea is the most suitable peak to climb among
the many peaks in the region. The remoteness and inaccessibility
of the region has helped to maintain the pristine purity of it
forest and eco-system
Wild Life - Numerous kind of wild animal, butterflies and birds
including endemic birds like White-Billed Herons and Wreathed
9j. Lumpi Marine National Park
Location - Kawthaung district,
Tannintharyi Division, Southern,
More than 800 islands, covering about 14,000 sq miles (36,000 sq
km). Most of the area remains unexplored.
The Archipelago has incredibly diverse flora and fauna above and
Various mangroves, wild life, caves, lagoons, fresh water falls
and river in the forest.
Perfectly designed for Adventure tours and eco-tourism
9k. Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife
Location - Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Division.
Area 620.35 square miles
Year of establishment - 1941
Opened as a national park in 1984
Forest type - Mangrove species such as Kanazo, Madama, Thame,
Thayaw, Kambala, Thinbaung, etc
Wildlife – Otter, samber, hog deer, wild boar, crab eating kra,
turtle, tortoises, estuarine crocodiles, fishs, prawns and crabs
Bird - 34 species of residential birds and 12 species of
9l. Myaing Hay Wun Elephant Camp
Location - Taikkyi Township, Yangon Division.
Year of establishment – 1986
Wildlife - Elephant, Gaur, Benteng, Barking Deer, Wild boar,
Hare Wild cat, Green Peafowl, Hill myna, Pheasant, Red jungle
fowl, Quail, lesser tree duck, Butterflies, Moths, Snakes,
Monitar lizard, Ground lizard, Grass lizard and Chameleon
Study of capture and train process of wild elephant
9m. Hukaung Valley Tiger Reserve
Location - Tanaing Township, Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.
Ledo Road (Stillwell Road) transverses the area.
Year of establishment - 1999
Upgraded as Tiger Reserve - 2004
Total land area - 6000 sq miles
Estimate 80-100 wild tigers, so far 2 tigers have been caught on
trap camera among with other animals.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) made 2 field trips: 1999 and
2001. The latest field trip led by Dr. Tony Lynam was in 2002
composed of personnel from Forest Dept and WCS.
Start from Tanaing using 1942 vintage maps. Set up trap cameras
at likely sites. 15 miles from Tanaing at a stream. 6 cameras
were set up. The cameras also captured pictures of 32 other